Introduction to Published Papers

1As previously suggested, the chronology of the published material on the ‘Rouke website can be confusing, as none of the documents are dated. The overall status is also confused by two related documents found in the Cornell University Library, entitled ‘A new paradigm for the universe’ submitted in 2003 and 2012. The first document appears to be a preliminary version written by Rouke, which is then superseded by the joint work of Rouke and MacKay submitted in 2012, which can be accessed via the following links:

The format of the 2012 paper is much changed, such that it is little more than a general overview with links to more detailed paper on ‘their website’ . Again, there is some confusion, as neither of these papers appear on this website, although there is another overview paper, which may or may not be another revision, in progress, of the papers above:

For those interested in the general ideas being proposed, the overview papers cited above might suffice, although it seems that most of the supportive evidence and rationale is provided in the following secondary papers.  The order of the list below is thought to better reflect the direction of increasing speculation and, from a review perspective, it may be better to start off anchored in the supportive observational data, which then leads the authors to their more speculative conclusions. Again, these papers can be accessed via the links below or via the website indicated above:

  1. Observations
  2. The structure of galaxies
  3. The geometry of spacetime

As links to the actual papers are provided, the following outline will do little more than select a number of extracts, which appear worthy of consideration or further comment:

Optical distortion in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field:
"It is proposed that the strange appearance of all non-standard galaxies in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field is due to optical distortion caused by non-uniformity in the intervening spacetime….Given the clear evidence of such distortion, in the field, there are no grounds for concluding that an undistorted view of the universe in the region covered by the field would be qualitatively different from a more local region."

Clearly, this aspect of observational data is a specialised subject and those with the necessary knowledge might challenge some of the points raised. However, for the lay-person, it is interesting to ‘see’ some of the images from which so much appears to be extrapolated.

Interpreting observed local stellar velocities:
"There are striking observations relating to the velocity distribution of stars which are near enough to us for proper motions to be established. This note interprets these observations in terms of the outward stellar flow along the spiral arm of our galaxy in which we lie and gives natural explanations for their salient features."

This short paper provides some useful introductory information concerning the potential complexity of the motion within a  galaxy, especially in connection to its age. The analogy that the motion within a galaxy resembles a ‘Catherine Wheel’ firework with rotation in the direction opposite to the spiral arms may be a useful visualisation, which should be considered against the more accepted idea of ‘galactic standing waves’. Within the basic model suggested, a star will not only move tangentially within the rotation of the galaxy, but also outwards along the spiral arm.

A Note on Sagittarius A:
"It is suggested that SgrA*, together with the stars which orbit it, form an old, nearly totally collapsed, globular cluster, that it is not at the centre of the galaxy and that there is no reason to suppose that it is at rest."

By way of explanation, nearly 20 years of observation of Sagittarius A* has led to the generally accepted idea that this object is the effective stationary centre of our galaxy, i.e. the Milky Way, and hides a massive black hole of some 4*106 solar masses.

A Note on Sagittarius A:
"I suggest that we are looking here at the root of a spiral arm where stars are being born and that this accounts for the brightness of the radio image. This implies that the region is full of pre-stellar material (dust and light elements) out of which stellar systems are condensing."

Whether Rouke’s analysis of the COBE imagery is adequate grounds for dismissing the accepted interpretation of the data available might well be questioned. However, it is not clear that it can be immediately rejected.

Intrinsic redshift in quasars:
"A recent paper by M.R.S. Hawkins ‘On time dilation in quasar light curves’ conclusively proves that quasars have intrinsic redshift."

The quote above also provides a link to the Hawkins’ paper, where the abstract might suggest that this author did not necessarily draw the same conclusions as Rouke. However, before discussing the idea of ‘intrinsic’ redshift, it might be worth summarising the scope of potential causes of redshift:

  1. Doppler:
    Classically, this effect is caused by a relative velocity between source and receiver, where the wave propagates through a continuous media. The issue of a media in regard to the vacuum of space is debatable.

  2. Time Dilation:
    In terms of special relativity, the velocity of the source frame, with respect to a ‘stationary’ observer, leads to time running slower in the observed source when relativistic velocities are involved.

  3. Gravitational:
    In terms of general relativity, proximity to any large gravitational mass will also cause time dilation.

  4. Cosmological:
    This form of redshift is directly attributed to the expansion of space.

Note: Some clarification of the causes of redshift outlined above might possibly be suggested at this point. First, in the classical description of a mechanical wave leading to a Doppler effect, the change in wavelength, or frequency, can be explained in terms of either a change in position, e.g. velocity [v], of the source or receiver of a continuous waveform. However, it is unclear that this explanation can be used in the other definitions without some important qualifications. This said, we might still understand how time dilation, in bullets 2 and 3, might cause redshift to either a continuous wave or discrete photon. However, it is unclear how cosmological redshift is explained, if restricted to the expansion of space, leading to a perceived velocity [v], if not also interpreted in terms of time dilation.

So, given all these potential causes, we might want to question the idea behind an ‘intrinsic redshift’. However, in some respect, it might simply be said that an intrinsic redshift is any mechanism where the redshift is not directly proportional to distance, such that some aspect of Hubble’s law might be questioned. The following bullets are a paraphrasing, not direct quotes, of Rouke’s description of intrinsic redshift within the model under review:

  • It is commonly accepted that the ‘generator’ of a quasar is a compact highly massive object usually called a ‘black hole’ and that the radiation either comes directly from the black hole or, more likely, from an excited layer of matter close to the hole.

  • There is no similar consensus for the ‘modulator’, i.e. something that affects the redshift on-route from the source-generator to the final observer. However, for active galaxies, there is a consensus view that there is again a central black hole, which is surrounded by a rotating accretion sphere of matter that exists in the form of a rotating equatorial disc.  

  • It seems plausible that quasars and active galaxies are part of a spectrum of phenomena associated with a ’black hole’ object surrounded by a rotating sphere of matter. In this context, Rouke argues that this additional rotational matter provides the basis for what is described as the ‘modulator’ and an explanation for the results derived by Hawkins’.

  • However, it is quite possible that the rotating sphere of matter around the black hole is not uniform. Therefore, the radiation from the generator, which passes through this sphere on its way to us, might also be subject to the observed variations due to non-uniformities in the sphere.

  • The generator, in close proximity to the black hole horizon, may be subject to fairly extreme gravitational redshift, while the modulator being at some distance, may be far less affected. If so, a quasar may be far closer, and less luminous, than normally interpreted based on the idea of cosmological redshift in isolation.

  • The idea of an intrinsic redshift was first championed by Halton Arp, but was seen by mainstream cosmology to be highly controversial. Rouke expresses his surprise at this reaction, because the process seems quite plausible and does not really contradict conventional cosmology.

In part, the papers outlined above form the basis of the observational data said to support a new model of galactic dynamics, which is outlined in the paper entitled A new paradigm for the structure of galaxies’. The model supports the basic idea that galaxies normally contain a super-massive object, e.g. a black hole, at its centre that determines the dynamics of the galaxy, including the generation of the spiral arms. As such, it claims to address a number of persistent problems with previous models:

  • The rotation curve of a galaxy
  • The spherical bulge at the centre of a normal galaxy
  • The spiral structure and long-term stability of a normal galaxy
  • The age and orbits of globular clusters
  • The origin and prevalence of solar systems

However, while it is argued that the model is compatible with current observations, it obviously differs in its interpretation and ultimately challenges the  accepted big bang model. Although there are a lot of arguments to be considered, this review will only comment on a few key aspects related to the rotational curves of galaxies and the idea of the generator of the spiral arms. The next discussion continues with the idea of Mach’s principle and frame dragging.