Information Technology Achievements

iphoneFinally, the last timeline is dedicated to information technology, incorporating both the developments in computing and telecommunications, which in conjunction gave rise to the 'Information Age' and the 'Internet' during the 20th century.

o 1662: William Oughtred invents the circular slide rule on the basis of Napier's logarithms.

o 1666: In England, Samuel Morland produces a mechanical calculator that can add and subtract.

o 1777: Philipp-Matthaus Hahn builds and sells a small number of calculating machines precise to 12 digits.

o 1786: The third Earl of Stanhope invents a multiplying calculator.

o 1801: A linked sequence of punched cards controls the weaving of patterns in Joseph-Marie Jacquard's loom.

o 1811: Luddites destroy machinery that threatens to eliminate jobs.

o 1820: Charles Babbage begins to design and build the Difference Engine.

o 1832: In January Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail demonstrate elements of the telegraph system.

o 1844: Samuel Morse sends a telegraph message from Washington to Baltimore.

o 1854: George Boole publishes "An Investigation of the Laws of Thought," describing a system for symbolic and logical reasoning that will become the basis for computer design.

o 1858: A telegraph cable spans the Atlantic Ocean for the first time and provides service for a few days.

o 1861: A transcontinental telegraph line connects the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

o 1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents and patents the telephone.

o 1889: The first four-function calculator is invented.

o 1895: Guglielmo Marconi transmits a radio signal

o 1901: The keypunch appears and changes very little over the next half century.

o 1907: Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes at Leiden University discovers superconductivity.

o 1911: John A. Fleming patents the diode vacuum tube, setting the stage for better radio communication.

o 1919: T.J. Watson renames CTR to IBM and popularizes the "Think" slogan he coined at National Cash Register.

o 1920: Karel Câpek first uses the word 'robot' in his play RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots).

o 1924: Eccles and Jordan, US physicists, invent the flip-flop electronic switching circuit critical to high-speed electronic counting systems.

o 1928: The quartz crystal clock makes possible unprecedented timekeeping accuracy.

o 1929: Herbert Hoover's face is seen on screen during the first demonstration of television in the US. Accompanying voice transmission uses telephone wires.

o 1930: Colour television signals are successfully transmitted.

o 1936: Konrad Zuse realizes that programs composed of bit combinations can be stored, and he files a patent application in Germany for the automatic execution of calculations, including a 'combination memory'.

o 1937: IBM introduces not only the 601 multiplying punch-card machine but also an electric typewriter. George Stibitz develops a binary circuit based on Boolean algebra.

o 1940: In December, Colossus, a British vacuum tube computer, becomes operational at Bletchley Park through the combined efforts of Alan Turing, Tommy Flowers, and M.H.A. Newman. It is considered the first all-electronic calculating device.

o 1944: The Harvard Mark I (a.k.a. IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator [ASCC]), produced by Howard Aiken, is dedicated at Harvard University on August 7, 1944. Bletchley Park Museum

o 1945: J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly sign a contract to build the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer. John von Neumann introduces the concept of a stored program in a June 30 draft report on the EDVAC design. Working on a prototype of the Mark II, in the summer Grace Murray Hopper finds the first computer "bug," a moth that had caused a relay failure.

o 1946: ENIAC, designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, is unveiled at the University of Pennsylvania on February 14.

o 1947: On December 23, Bell Labs management is informed by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain that along with William Shockley they have developed the first transistor. The magnetic drum memory is introduced as a data storage device for computers.

o 1948: Claude Shannon publishes 'A Mathematical Theory of Communication', formulating the modern understanding of the communication process.

o 1949: The Whirlwind computer, constructed under the leadership of Jay Forrester at MIT to be the first real-time computer, is placed in service during the third quarter. It contained 5,000 vacuum tubes. Short Order Code, developed by John Mauchly, is thought to be the first high-level programming language.

o 1950: Alan Turing publishes an article in the journal Mind establishing the criteria for the Turing Test of machine intelligence.

o 1951: William Shockley invents the junction transistor.

o 1952: On television, a Univac-I predicts the outcome of the presidential election and expands the public consciousness regarding computers.

o 1953: The IBM 650, known as the Magnetic Drum Calculator, debuts and becomes the first mass produced computer.

o 1954: Earl Masterson's Uniprinter, or line printer, developed for computers, executes 600 lines per minute. Texas Instruments introduces the silicon transistor, pointing the way to lower manufacturing costs.

o 1956: IBM introduces and begins installing the RAMAC (random-access method of accounting and control) for hard disk data storage.

o 1957: The Univac 1103A becomes the first commercial machine with a ferrite-core memory. John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky chair a meeting at Dartmouth College at which the concept of artificial intelligence is developed. John McCarthy forms MIT's Artificial Intelligence Department. Russia launches Sputnik I into orbit on October 4, and the "space race" begins. USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the following year, within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military

o 1958: Bell's development of the modem data phone enables telephone lines to transmit binary data.

o 1959: John McCarthy develops Lisp (list processing) for artificial intelligence applications. On July 30, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore file a patent application for integrated circuit technology on behalf of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corp.

o 1960: At Cornell University, Frank Rosenblatt builds a computer-the Perceptron-that can learn by trial and error through a neural network. Working at Rand Corp., Paul Baran develops the packet-switching principle for data communications. Fernando Corbató at MIT develops a way for multiple users to share computer time.

o 1961: Georg C. Devol patents a robotic device, which Unimation soon markets as the first industrial robot. It is first used to automate the manufacture of TV picture tubes. First paper on packet-switching (PS) theory. Leonard Kleinrock, MIT: "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets" (May 31),

o 1962: The Telstar communications satellite is launched on July 10 and relays the first transatlantic television pictures. The first video game is invented by MIT graduate student Steve Russell

o 1963: On the basis of an idea of Alan Turing's, Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT develops a "mechanical psychiatrist" called Eliza that appears to possess intelligence. At the University of California, Berkeley, Lotfi Zadeh begins work on fuzzy logic.

o 1964: Basic (Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is developed at Dartmouthby John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. It spawns many variations. Doug Engelbart invents the mouse. IBM develops a computer aided design system. With a speed of 9 megaflops, Control Data Corp.'s CDC 6600,designed by Seymour Cray, claims the title of first commercially successful supercomputer.

o 1965: At the University of Belgrade, Rajko Tomovic makes one of the earliest attempts to develop an artificial limb with a sense of touch. ARPA sponsors study on "cooperative network of time-sharing computers"

o 1966: First ARPANET plan. Lawrence G. Roberts, MIT: "Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers" (October)

o 1967: First design paper on ARPANET published by Larry Roberts: "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication

o 1968: The Seymour Cray-designed CDC 7600 supercomputer achieves 40-megaflops performance.

o 1969: The US Department of Defense commissions Arpanet for research networking, and the first four nodes become operational at UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, SRI, and the University of Utah. DDP-516 mini computer with 12K of memory; AT&T provides 50kbps lines

o 1970: Shakey, developed at SRI International, is the first robot to use artificial intelligence to navigate. Dennis Ritchie and Kenneth Thomson develop Unix at Bell Labs. RCA's MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) technology promises cheaper and smaller ICs. The floppy disk and the daisywheel printer make their debut. ARPANET hosts start using Network Control Protocol (NCP), first host-to-host protocol. First cross-country link installed by AT&T between UCLA and BBN at 56kbps.

o 1971: Ray Tomlinson of Bolt Beranek and Newman sends the first network e-mail message. Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents email program to send messages across a distributed network

o 1972: Hand-held calculators become popular, making the slide rule obsolete. Researchers at Xerox PARC develop an experimental PC called Alto that uses a mouse, Ethernet, and a graphical user interface. The @ sign was chosen from the punctuation keys on for its "at" meaning (March)

o 1973: Work begins on the Transmission Control Protocol at a Stanford University laboratory headed by Vinton Cerf. Through a technique called large-scale integration, 10,000 components are placed on a 1-sq-cm chip. A 4-Kbit D-RAM chip becomes commercially available. Bob Kahn poses Internet problem, starts Internet research program at ARPA. Vinton Cerf sketches gateway architecture in March on back of envelope in a San Francisco hotel lobby.

o 1974: In Stockholm, chess-playing computers engage in their first tournament. At Xexoc PARC, Charles Simonyi writes the first WYSIWYG application, Bravo.

o 1975: IBM introduces the laser printer. The first PC, an Altair 8800, available as a kit, appears on the cover of Popular Electronics in January. Satellite links cross two oceans (to Hawaii and UK)and the first TCP tests are run over them by Stanford, BBN, and UCL.

o 1976: IBM develops the ink-jet printer. The Cray-1 from Cray Research is the first supercomputer with a vectorial architecture.

o 1977: The Apple II is announced in the spring and establishes the benchmark for personal computers. Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft, setting up shop first in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

o 1978: Intel's first 16-bit processor, the 8086, debuts. TCP split into TCP and IP (March).

o 1979: Cellular telephones are tested in Japan and Chicago. The first electronic spreadsheet program, Don Bricklin's and Bob Franston's VisiCalc, is unveiled on May 11 and proves to be the "killer app" for early PCs. Digital videodisks appear through the efforts of Sony and Philips.

o 1980: IBM selects PC-DOS from upstart Microsoft as the operating system for its new PC. The Osborne 1 "portable" computer weighs 24 pounds and is the size of a small suitcase. ARPANET grinds to a complete halt on 27 October because of an accidentally-propagated status-message virus

o 1981:Japan grabs a big piece of the chip market by producing chips with 64 Kbits of memory.

o 1982: Time magazine names the computer as its "Man of the Year." Japan launches its "fifth generation" computer project, focusing on artificial intelligence. Commercial e-mail service begins among 25 cities. First definitions of an "internet" as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and "Internet" as connected TCP/IP internets

o 1983: Completion of the TCP/IP switchover marks the creation of the global Internet.

o 1984: MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) standards are developed for interfacing computers and digital music synthesizers. The CD-ROM, introduced by Sony and Philips, provides significantly greater storage capacity for digital data. A motion picture, The Last Starfighter, uses extensive supercomputer-generated graphics. NEC manufactures a 256-Kbit chip, and IBM introduces a 1-Mbit RAM chip. Motorola introduces the MC68020 with 250,000 transistors. In Neuromancer, novelist William Gibson coins the term cyberspace. Domain Name System (DNS) introduced as number of hosts breaks 1,000

o 1985: Inmos introduces transputers, featuring concurrent processing architecture. Supercomputer speeds reach 1 billion operations per second with the release of the Cray 2 and Thinking Machines' parallel processor. The Omnibot 2000 from Tony Kyogo can move, talk, and carry objects. In October, Intel introduces the 80386 chip with 32-bit processing and on-chip memory management

o 1986: Experimental 4- and 16-Mbit chips are introduced. The four-processor Cray XP performs 713 million floating-point operations per second.

o 1987: Number of Internet hosts breaks 10,000.

o 1988: Motorola's 32-bit 88000 series of RISC microprocessors offer processing speeds of up to 17 million instructions per second. Graduate student Robert Morris Jr. reveals the need for greater network security by releasing a worm program into the Internet on November 2.

o 1989: Microsoft introduces Windows 3.0 in May, intensifying its legal dispute with Apple over the software's "look and feel" resemblance to the Macintosh operating system. Intel's 80486 chip with 1.2 million transistors is introduced in April. The Japanese Ministry of Trade and Industry abandons its program to build a fifth-generation computer and plans instead for a sixth-generation computer to be based on neural networks. Number of hosts breaks 100,000.

o 1990: Berners-Lee writes the initial prototype for the World Wide Web, which uses his other creations: URLs, HTML, and HTTP. Hewlett-Packard and IBM both announce RISC-based computers. Intel's i486 and iPSC/860, and Motorola's 68040 become available. Scientists at Bell Labs demonstrate the first all-optical processor on January 29. Toaster by John Romkey, (controlled via SNMP) makes its debut at Interop.

o 1991: Cray Research unveils the Cray Y-MP C90 with 16 processors and a speed of 16 Gflops. NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps) NSFNET traffic passes 1 trillion bytes/month and 10 billion packets/month.

o 1992: DEC introduces the first chip to implement its 64-bit RISC Alpha architecture. Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000. The term "surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly .

o 1993: Intel's Pentium is introduced in March.Students and staff at the University of Illinois' National Center for Supercomputing Applications creates a graphical user interface for Internet navigation called NCSA Mosaic. US White House comes on-line ( Mosaic takes the Internet by storm (22 Apr); WWW proliferates at a 341,634% annual growth rate of service traffic. Gopher's growth is 997%.

o 1994: Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California demonstrates that DNA can be used as a computing medium. Netscape's first browser becomes available in September and creates a rapidly growing body of Web surfers. NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month

o 1995: The Intel Pentium Pro is announced. Toy Story is the first full-length feature movie completely computer generated. Windows 95 is launched on August 24 with great fanfare. Sun launches JAVA on May 23

o 1996: The Java programming language, unveiled in May, enables platform independent application development. "Duke" is the first applet.

o 1998: Web size estimates range between 275 (Digital) and 320 (NEC) million pages for 1Q.

o 1999: A forged Web page made to look like a Bloomberg financial news story raised shares of a small technology company by 31% on 7 April.

o 2000: A massive denial of service attack is launched against major web sites, including Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay in early Februar. Web size estimates by NEC-RI and Inktomi surpass 1 billion indexable pages.

o 2001: Viruses of the Year: Code Red (Jul), Nimda (Sep), SirCam (Jul), BadTrans (Apr, Nov)

o 2002: A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack struck the 13 DNS root servers knocking out all but 5 (21-23 Oct).

o 2003: The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever. Taking roughly 10 minutes to spread worldwide. The worm took down 5 of the 13 DNS root servers along with tens of thousands of other servers, and impacted a multitude of systems ranging from (bank) ATM systems to air traffic control to emergency (911) systems (25 Jan).

o 2003: The Human Genome Project is completed. It has identify some 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA and determined the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, but more than this, it signals the beginning of a new age.