﻿ 2.WSE

# Wave Structure of Everything (WSE) We might see the animation right as a representation of a 3-dimensional spherical particle in which 'hides' some form of underlying 3D wave structure. In this context, the WSE set of discussions will attempt to highlight a number of issues and possibly requirements on any potential wave model. In this respect, the idea of a WSE model is anchored in the simple idea that matter particles can have no definable ‘substance’ beyond some form of energy-density in the sub-atomic domain of protons, neutrons and electrons. In the early days of the 20th century, science was only just beginning to understand the sub-atomic structure of matter, which was initially thought to be analogous to a mini-solar system, where the electrons orbited a central nucleus - see the microscopic calculator . However, while this model was later shown to be incorrect, it still suggests that the 'substance' or 'mass' of an atom, as a percentage of its volume, had to be negligible, i.e. an atom is essentially 99.9999999999999% empty space.

Note: By way of an example, if you could take away all the empty space in the subatomic particles of the 7.3 billion people on planet Earth, they could be compressed into a volume only a little larger than a grain of rice.

However, the full scale of the 'emptiness' of space within the universe might be better understood in terms of the current cosmological density model - see the cosmic calculator or macroscopic calculator. In this model, the present-day energy density is estimated to be 8.53*10-10 joules/m3. However, only 4% of this total can be attributed to any known mass particle, i.e. 3.41*10-11joules/m3. However, in order to equate this energy-density to the normal concept of mass in kilograms [kg], we need to divide by [c2], which gives us a figure of ~10-28kg/m3.

Note: A mass-density of 10-28kg/m3 would suggest that only 0.00000000000000000000000001% of the universe has any substance that we might be quantified in terms of the standard particle model.

Of course, if energy is a scalar quantity, it cannot propagate through space-time without some physical cause and effect mechanism, such that a wave model of some description might appear quite a logical line of thought. In this respect, quantum theory has proposed a mathematical wave-function that might be described as propagating through equally conceptual quantum fields, as the physical reality of such fields is often questioned. Likewise, special relativity, at first glance, appears to reject the idea of space having any physical existence as an absolute reference frame, which the negative findings of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) might only seem to support. Of course, any WSE model in which ‘everything’ is immersed within the wave media of space would have to challenge the standard interpretation of the MMX and provided some other rationale interpretation for its apparent negative results. This may be a tall order, as 100 years of experimental results in support of the description of relativity and quantum theory cannot simply be ignored, even though there are known discrepancies between these theories that might suggest that the current standard model is far from complete.

So what attributes might the WSE model require?

First, it has to explain the evidence in support of relativity in as much that a WSE model would have to broadly produce similar results, although they might be described more in terms of a relativistic Doppler effect that encompasses ‘everything’. i.e. observers and all the equipment used to make observations. Second, it would have to provide some form of explanatory ‘bridge’ between the description of relativity and quantum theory across all scales. As indicated, quantum theory generally assumes a maximum frequency equal to the Planck frequency, i.e. 1.9*1043s-1, which then suggests a possible quantum energy density in the order of the Planck energy density, i.e. 4.6*10113J/m3.

Note: Vacuum energy is a conceptual energy thought to exist in space even when space is devoid of particles. The concept of vacuum energy has been deduced from the concept of virtual particles, which is itself derived from the energy-time uncertainty principle. However, if Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is to remain consistent with the principle of Lorentz covariance and with the magnitude of the Planck Constant [h], the vacuum is required to have a much larger value of 10113 Joules per cubic metre, although the details behind this figure need to be examined.

However, this huge quantum energy density has never been reconciled with the energy density of the universe based on general relativity, i.e. ~10-9J/m3. Therefore, as indicated, the scale of the issues confronting the development of any sort of WSE model will not be an easy task, even if it is possible, because such a model must undoubtedly challenge some of the most fundamental assumptions of both classical and modern physics.